Gene expression analysis is the study or analysis of gene products formed after gene coding. It is an indication of changes in gene expression pattern that reflects back as a change in the biological process. Gene expression analysis goes beyond the static information of genome sequence into a dynamic functional view of any organism genomic content and is extensively used in research, pharmaceutical, and clinical settings to better understand individual genes, gene activity profiles, or gene pathways. Gene expression analysis can be attained through different techniques, though real-time PCR is most popular approach. Transcriptomics deals with the analysis of different types of RNA sequences, transcribed by the genome, in a specific cell under given conditions through the use of high-throughput techniques, such as microarray analysis. Identification of genes differentially expressed in response to varied treatments or in distinct cell populations can be studied by comparing the set of transcriptome.
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Major factors driving the growth of the gene expression analysis market include rising number of patients suffering from rare diseases, increasing prevalence of cancer, surging demand for personalized medicine, increase in funding, declining price of sequencing, and strong focus on laboratory research. However, significant high prices of gene expression analysis instruments are anticipated to hinder the growth of the gene expression analysis market.
The global gene expression analysis market can be segmented based on product type, technology, application, and service. By product type, the market can be divided into kits and reagents, DNA chips, and others. The technology segment of the market can be classified into serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), microarrays, next-generation sequencing (NGS), RNA-Seq, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR), and others. Microarrays are common in large-scale comparison of gene expression analysis, allowing tens of thousands of targets to be compared simultaneously. The most popular approach is to compare expression patterns from a sample representing the condition of interest to the same set of genes from a reference sample; thus, relative expression levels between two populations can be calculated.
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High throughput approach allows large-scale screening of gene pathways or disease-related gene families and is proving a useful approach in disease-prognosis studies or to predict effects of chemicals or drugs on biological processes in pharmaceutical research. However, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) is presently being more widely used for validation of high throughput gene expression analyses and for analysis of moderate numbers of genes, allowing for accurate relative (or in some cases absolute) quantification of cDNA in a sample, representing gene expression levels of the target of interest.
In terms of application, the gene expression analysis market can be categorized into diagnostics, drug discovery and development, R&D, and others. Based on services, the market can be classified into gene expression profiling services, sequencing services, bioinformatics solutions, and others.
On the basis of geography, the global gene expression analysis market can be divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held the leading share of the global gene expression analysis market in 2017, followed by Europe. This can be attributed to the presence of a large number of leading market players, technological advancements, and heavy investment in laboratory research in North America. In Europe, initiatives taken by the government in research & development are likely to drive the global gene expression analysis market during the forecast period. The gene expression analysis market in the emerging economies of Asia Pacific is expected to grow rapidly due to increasing pharmaceutical applications, large patient population, and developing health care technology. However, the gene expression analysis market in the developing nations of the Middle East and Latin America is expected to witness a sluggish growth during the forecast period due to poor health care facilities and low investments in research and development.
Key players operating in the global gene expression analysis market include GE Healthcare, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Life Technologies, Roche, QIAGEN N.V., Affymetrix, and Illumina, Inc. Other prominent players in the market are Agilent Technologies, Bio-Rad Laboratories, PerkinElmer, Oxford Gene Technology, and Luminex Corporation.
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